This book is designed for use in a senior level design course. The book covers the design of mu-nicipal water and wastewater facilities. I have assumed that the students have had a previous in-troductory environmental engineering course and a first course in fluid mechanics. That is, I have assumed the student is familiar with notation such as mg/L and acronyms such as BOD as well as the concepts of mass balance, Bernoulli’s equation, and friction loss. Because I could not as-sume that the students have used either Introduction to Environmental Engineering or Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science, some material from those texts is used to introduce the subject matter included here.
A Professional Advisory Board has provided their experience and expertise to vet the material in Water and Wastewater Engineering. The Board is composed of licensed engineers, a licensed geologist, and licensed treatment plant operators. A short biographical sketch and affiliation of the Professional Advisory Board members is presented following this preface. They have read and commented on all of the chapters. In addition, a number of operators have been interviewed to obtain hints on methods for improving designs.
The book format is one that I used successfully over the 20 years that I taught the material. The book starts with an overview of the design and construction process including the application of the code of ethics in the process. The first half of the book addresses water treatment. Because my course was built around a term design project, the subject matter follows the flow of water through the unit processes of coagulation, flocculation, softening (including NF and RO), sedimentation, filtration (including MF and UF), disinfection, and residuals management.
The topics of wastewater treatment follow a similar pattern of following the flow through a plant, that is, preliminary treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, tertiary treatment, and residuals management. Special attention is given to the application of membranes.
Each subject in each chapter is introduced with a discussion of the theoretical principles that are to be applied in the design of the unit process. In addition, in each chapter, appropriate design criteria from the Great Lakes–Upper Mississippi River Board of State and Provincial Public Health and Environmental Managers (known to the elders of the profession as the Ten State Standards) as well as alternative approaches from the literature are addressed.
Each chapter ends with a Chapter Review that is formatted for easy adaption to ABET course objectives. The review items also make it easy for the instructor to maintain a working record of continuous quality improvement for periodic ABET reviews.
The text features over 100 example problems, 500 end-of-chapter problems, and 300 illustra-tions. A highlight of the book is the inclusion of safety issues in the design requirements as well as operation and maintenance activities. Hints from the field bring real life experience in solving technical issues.
The amount of material presented here is quite extensive. Originally, the material was covered in three 10-week quarters. Because of credit limitations, when Michigan State University switched to a semester system, the three courses were reduced to a one semester course. As presented here, the material is appropriate for two semesters of work. For those who are not fortunate enough to have two semesters to present the material, a truncated plan, leaving some material for life-long learning, is possible. I used the one semester plan in the last decade that I taught the course.
Table of Contents
1 The Design and Construction Processes
2 General Water Supply Design Considerations
3 Coagulation and Flocculation
4 Lime-Soda Softening
5 Ion Exchange
6 Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration
8 Granular Filtration
9 Membrane Filtration
10 Disinfection and Fluoridation
11 Water Plant Residuals Management
12 General Wastewater Collection and Treatment Design Considerations
13 Headworks and Preliminary Treatment
14 Primary Treatment
15 Wastewater Microbiology
16 Secondary Treatment by Suspended Growth Biological Processes
17 Secondary Treatment by Attached Growth and Hybrid Biological Processes
18 Secondary Setting, Disinfection, and Postaeration
19 Tertiary Treatment
20 Wastewater Plant Residuals Management